Tag Archives: LSoS

The Next Stage of Street Law.

This weekend, the 5th (unofficially) bi-annual Street Law training Session took place in the HQ of the Law Society of Scotland’s headquarters in Edinburgh. It’s the first one in a year-and-a-half I haven’t been involved in, which saddens me a bit.

Street Law is now firmly implanted as part of LSoS’s Legal Education programme – which is fantastic news. Street Law is not ‘teaching law’ the way the LL.B or Diploma means it. The aim of Street Law is to make those most likely to come into contact with the law (who are, by the way, the demographic groups least likely to study law) more aware of the rules and their rights in those situations.

I will never forget my first Street Law lesson in Bellahouston Academy, which looked at Stop and Search, just as the controversy of Police Scotland’s abuse of Stop and Search powers  was coming to light. I had never been stopped and searched – but the 13 year old boy in front of me had been and didn’t know what his rights were when he was. If the law is supposed to be ‘known’ and accessible, that includes the kids too.
My favourite lesson to do is the Human Rights lesson because it makes kids think about what they take for granted: privacy, freedom from torture, procedural fairness. Sometimes, they even make the connection with the news and the government and Prime Minster who keeps wanting to remove the rights. Some, some, even get angry about it. Street Law isn’t about trying to impose any particular view on the law, or any particular jurisprudencial outlook, but if that discussion comes about, then that can surely only be a good thing.

The LSoS’s purpose for Street Law is raising awareness of the law for those who are most affected by it. But success – and it must now be seen as a success – leads to more questions. Now that Street Law is established as an option by LSoS, what are the next steps? It is tempting, and I feel this may be lawyer instincts for formalisation kicking in, to say that the next stage of this should be the creation of a subject of “Law” at Higher or Advance Higher stage – but there are so many practical questions in there that require detailed answers before that is possible. Who teaches it? What does it include? How do you limit it? How do you not bore them to death with delict?
The most immediate question, in my mind, is “How do we increase uptake in the Street law programme? Street Law is provided by LSoS, but as an option. It is presented to councils and Head teachers as something they may want to take up (and it’s very ‘Curriculum for Excellence’ friendly) but some do and some don’t. Those that do offer universal praise – so how do we convince those who don’t take up the offer? And, while the offer is open to all, does it mean something that schools like Jordanhill (who the programme isn’t particularly aimed at) still jump at it?
Street Law is, at the moment, scarcely funded. The Law Society can’t do much more and are doing more than they can to support it (with Rob Marrs and Lyndsey Thompson going above and beyond to support the programme) and convince Head Teachers to take up the offer, but can more be done?  Could more funding lead to more growth across the country?The programme now has sponsorship from large Law firms (including CM and Pincent Masons) – might this allow clearer resources and support to follow?
Even though just over 30 schools across Scotland have taken Street Law into their classrooms, how can this be expanded? Could it be that some teachers see it as separate and distracting from, and not part of, a Modern Studies syllabus? Could it be that teachers aren’t confident enough to trust Law students without teaching diplomas loose in their classrooms? Does the fact that it doesn’t free up a teacher (since Street Law should still be supervised by the class teacher) remove a potential benefit? These are all questions that, as the programme enters its 3rd year, LSoS can begin to form answers to and address.

Street Law’s success is a testament to the support it has received from LSoS, the officers organising it, the students leading it, the schools arranging it and the pupils receiving it. If the benefits of it can be clearly demonstrated, I am in no doubt that, over the next 3 years it will become a normal part of Secondary School Social Sciences and, as a consequence, school pupils will have an increased (and accurate) knowledge of the law as it affects them. Particularly those from lower-income backgrounds might come to see law  as something accessible and maybe even achievable for them.

Re-Solving Legal Aid…

…or how I developed a new respect for the Law Society.


Last November the Law Society of Scotland (or ‘LSoS’) released it’s Discussion Paper on the Future of Legal Aid in Scotland, setting out what changes it felt could be made. At the time I, amongst others, came out pretty resolutely against many of the reforms they suggested, since I felt they would damage the ability for the most vulnerable in society to access the legal system. As it happened, I was told by a reliable source that the high heid yins in LSoS’s Legal Aid department actually saw the post and considered it in response to the discussion paper.
Last week (the day before the General Election nonetheless), LSoS released their Final Recommendations based on the responses (and blog posts) they received. I’ve read it and it was a really positive shift from 6 months ago.

Criminal-wise, LSoS propose a system of block fees, to take account of the fact that since Legal Aid was last reformed, we have entered the post-Cadder age, where lawyers available at all hours of the day. With ‘telephone advice’ becoming a separate block, this will help simplify the system. There would then be a clear compartmentalisation of each additional “kind” of work required as is needed. This system has the great advantage of all knowing both the Legal Aid Board and solicitors to know ahead of time, what they can expect, instead of having to get Legal Aid certificates renewed every time. This is very similar to the current system, but tightens it up around the edges and makes it even clearer what can be expected when. Good work all round.

But it’s the massive changes with regards to Civil Legal Aid which have got me excited. My biggest problem with the discussion paper was LSoS suggesting that certain areas of law should be taken out of the scope of Civil legal Aid entirely. Those areas (including breach of contract; debt; employment issues; and housing) were the ones that vulnerable and disadvantaged were most affected by, and so it would be those groups that would feel the brunt of the Legal Aid cuts most keenly. However, I was pleased to see that LSoS have dropped the awful proposals. This genuinely made me smile when I read it, because it means those most in need of access to the justice system can still get their foot in the door.
The idea of Legal Aid Loans  (which will be paid back over a certain length of time based on financial means) is still not sitting 100% with me, but restricting them to the richest qualifiers as a kind of ‘top-up’ should lessen the worst aspects of the system. As long as free support is there for those most in need of it, top-up style loans will have a place in the system going forward.
Finally, it’s great that there’s a commitment to work with the voluntary sector to see how the professional legal sector  can work alongside it. However, and I accept that this is perhaps slightly outwith LSoS’s remit, the funding issues faced by law centres and advice bureau mean that, unless they are explored and resolved in a serious way, no long-term answers will be found. One possible step may be linking law firms and 3rd sector organisations, but this could only really be made viable through alternative business structures, which aren’t coming into Scotland as quickly as was anticipated only a few years ago.

In short, the Final Report is a massive improvement on what LSoS originally put out for discussion, so the Society should be proud. It has really listened to the responses it received – and that gives me great comfort as I enter the profession. The real way to solve this problem, of course, is to increase funding to Legal Aid and treat it as the important issue it is. You can have all the rights in the world, but if you are unable to enforce them in court, they are worthless. The idea that the only people who benefit from Legal Aid are fat-cat lawyers is, unfortunately, still keenly in the zeitgeist, which is a challenge for the profession – but the challenge for everyone is to defend the right a defence.


Given the recent discussion around Human Rights and all that surrounds them, it’s also worth highlighting that the right to proper representation has been accepted as being part of Article 6. So far in that debate, both the Scottish Government  and the Scottish Parliament has stated it will be a fierce defender of Human Rights in Scotland. By ensuring Legal Aid is sustainable and accessible in the long-term (which includes ensuring it has proper funding), they would be able to show that they will be.

Creating a High School Law School…

…or why I’m particularly excited about Street Law.


I’ve complained twice in the last month that understanding of the law outside of the profession is, generally, quite poor. Even our own government makes mistakes that are simple to avoid (and for some, their approach to law-making leave a lot to be desired). I’ve also said that it is up to law students and lawyers to improve this. This weekend, I took action.

On Saturday morning I went to go to the Law Society of Scotland’s (LSOS’s) Offices in Edinburgh. My blog hadn’t gotten me in trouble (yet), and it wasn’t about court reform. I had volunteered, along with more than 50 other Law students from across Scotland, to take part in a weekend-long training session. Two American folks had come over to teach the bunch of us about something that has existed in The States for about 40 years, but only arrived on our shores about 4 months ago: Street Law.

Street Law

Street Law is about helping young people engage with the law. It’s not about cases or statutes; it’s about concepts and principles. It was founded in the 1970’s in Georgetown, DC, essentially as a way of teaching kids about their rights. But since then it has grown and expanded to look at all aspects of the law and is taught to a whole range of people, including prisoners and community groups.
Instead of ‘death by PowerPoint’, lists of cases to memorise and statutes to remember, Street Law focuses on the bigger picture. The aim of the Scottish Scheme, which was trialled last last year, is to teach school pupils (S3/S4) about the law in a way they would find engaging, interesting and most of all exciting. The central aim is that people are able to face the law on their own terms and in a way they understand. In essence, it’s about making the law relevant to those learning it.
Imagine, for example, going into a school in Castlemilk or Drumchapel. As much as I love talking about the UK Constitution, it’s unlikely to be a hot topic in the playground. The fact that Wee Jimmy got stopped by the police last week but Jimmy didn’t know what to do is probably a lot more interesting, so that is what we talk about, and our devolution debates have to wait for another time. And even then, you don’t go on about the procedural changes the  Police, Public Order and Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 2005 introduced, but what they mean in real life. You ask whether the Police should be able to stop anyone for any reason, or if limits should be placed on them. If so – what are they? And from there you can even ask whether they think an individual’s freedom more important than societal safety? From wee Jimmy’s unfortunate incident you can explore a national scandal…and they might just listen.

Scottish Enlightenment

The hope of LSoS is that, by getting the law into schools, with the backing of Head Teachers and Classroom workers, it won’t seem so scary and remote. During the weekend, we got to hear from those already delivering Street Law lessons in Scotland and according to them it has been a storming success. Under the pretence of aliens arriving from some distant planet, they had kids deciding which Human Rights they needed to be safe, and how they did it. School pupils have been thinking about whether keeping the wrong change from a shop should be a crime, and whether it should be more or less of a crime than selling drugs – and why. Things that would never even cross their minds otherwise are, all of a sudden, accessible because they’re being asked to come up with an answer – not being asked what the answer is.

That is the true strength of Street Laws approach, and why its such an exciting idea – the learners are at the heart of everything that happens. One of the most interesting things from the whole weekend was ‘The Michael Morton Experiment’. A crime scene was set up in the room. A note was left on the wall. Evidence and information was presented and, in groups, the participants had to try and piece together what had happened. Had Michael, murdered his wife(Christine), or had someone else done it? Was the fact he seemed to show no remorse over his wife’s death the reaction of a man in shock – or a sign of a cold-hearted killer? When all these questions had been considered, people were paired off, and 1 acted and a Prosecutor of, and the other as a Defender for, Michael Morton in a plea negotiation. The evidence was damning, but not water-tight. Was a deal worth it? Was there still reasonable doubt? Is it worth going to trial even though, if found guilty, Michael Morton would be executed?
When us law students did this on Saturday Afternoon, a fair number of the participants thought that Michael Morton was guilty. About 90% came to a bargain that involved some amount of jail-time for the man. It was only after all of this that it was revealed that this was not actually an experiment. It was based on a real case, where Michael spent 25 years in prison for killing his wife. On 19th December 2011, Michael Morton was found innocent. He had been convicted based on incomplete evidence and untruthful prosecutors.
What the defenders in the room didn’t know was that the prosecutors had been given 4 additional pieces of evidence. All of these categorically exonerated Michael Morton, but the prosecutors didn’t have to tell the defenders about them i.e. there was no duty to disclose. what does the prosecutor go for: the win, or the right answer?

When this is used in a school, the whole concept of what ‘justice’ is exploded wide open. Not because a teacher stood in front of the class with a jurisprudence textbook, but because the learners stepped inside the shoes of real lawyers. They examined the evidence. They drew the conclusions. They had to decide what to do in the negotiation. They had to decide if being right or being successful was more important to them. Decisions solicitors and advocates have to make every day were instead being made by them, and suddenly don’t seems do remote or distant.

Going Meta

If we are serious about engaging people in the law (and by extension politics), Street Law is absolutely the best way to start. By using examples the school children can relate to (such as stop-and-search), simple examples (such as aliens stealing our Human Rights) and fun, interactive teaching methods (like ‘The Michael Morton Experiment’ does), “The Law” can slowly become just “the law”. Not some far off concept that only people in wigs and silly gowns can understand, but something that affects everybody.
In essence, Street Law democratises law and can help play a part in promoting fair access to justice in Scotland. We encourage greater understanding of what the law is and what it means, so in future when Tory MP’s make nonsensical statements about the Human Rights Act, its not just the lawyers on twitter who ridicule him for it, but non-lawyers get why he’s wrong as well.
But more than that. Street Law helps to promote engaged, analytical and curious minds in the next generation, adn demystifies the idea of ‘being a lawyer’. The legal profession is still seen as an old boys’ club where Legal Dynasties reign and the top lawyers are overwhelmingly rich, white men. It is not an expanding circle, and not something for the wee kid in Drumchapel. We have to change this perception.

Street Law is our chance to do so.